Driving With a Provisional License

Studies show that drivers are at their highest lifetime crash risk the day they drive home alone from the DMV with their provisional license. As part of Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) programs, provisional licenses provide temporary restrictions to protect newly licensed drivers from this high crash risk.

What does driving with a provisional license mean? Also known as a “probationary,” “junior” or “intermediate” license depending on the state issuing it, this type of license includes certain limitations on driving for a period of time to help new drivers gain experience under safe conditions.

These restrictions during the driving with a provisional license period work by reducing teens’ exposure to known factors associated with crash risk during their first months of independent driving. This gives them time to develop skills and maturity under safer conditions. There are two key provisions that have been proven to reduce fatalities among new drivers: nighttime driving and driving with peer passengers.

In 2016, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) researchers published a study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine that found most newly licensed teens do indeed follow the provisions of a driving with an intermediate license, with 92% of trips in compliance with the passenger restriction and 97% in compliance with the nighttime restriction.

Nighttime Driving Restrictions

All states place some restriction on driving at night for intermediate license holders. Many start at midnight, but research shows teens’ fatal nighttime crash rates are highest between 9 p.m. and midnight. Thus, many states have been changing this provision to start earlier to prevent more nighttime crashes. Still, half of the states with GDL laws in place do not restrict driving until midnight or later. So it’s up to parents to set earlier restrictions for their newly licensed drivers.

Fatal nighttime crashes among teen drivers are more likely to be associated with multiple teenage passengers, speeding, and alcohol use. Although it is inherently more difficult to drive in the dark for drivers of all ages, fatigue and lack of practice may play a greater role for teenagers. 

Peer Passenger Restrictions

Most states have a restriction on driving peer passengers during the first six to 12 months of driving with a probationary license. Several states lift the restriction upon turning 18 years old, regardless of months with a probationary license. 

Peer passengers are a deadly distraction. Just one teen passenger doubles the risk a teen driver will get into a fatal crash; three or more passengers quadruple the risk. 

Perhaps more astounding: Most teens do not consider themselves inexperienced drivers. Although 60% of teens believe inexperience heavily influences driving safety, only 15% consider their peers inexperienced. Teens may also incorrectly associate having a license with experience, leading to a false sense of safety.